Digital Citizenship, Values and Cultural Dynamism


  • J. Mitchell O'Toole University of Newcastle, Alpha Crucis University College, Australia
  • John K. Lee University of Newcastle, Australia
  • Taghreed Altamimi University of Newcastle, Australia, and Hail University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia



ICT, WorldWideWeb, accountability


This paper examines the global shift towards digital citizenship triggered by COVID-19 and its role in mediating cultural tensions in a rapidly digitizing world. Utilizing mixed methods, the study draws from two projects: the first assesses the engagement of 315 Australian adolescents with values in their science education, and the second investigates digital citizenship practices among 303 university faculty members in Saudi Arabia. The findings highlight significant sociocultural differences in digital engagement and underscore the varying impacts of digital globalization across different educational and national contexts. The paper argues for a proactive educational strategy that encourages critical engagement with digital tools to navigate and reconcile these cultural dynamics effectively. By exploring the interactions between digital technology providers, users, and regulatory bodies, the study provides insights into the complexities of digital responsibility and the potential of education to foster a balanced digital citizenship. This approach suggests moving beyond mere technological integration to embrace a pedagogy that is responsive to the ethical challenges posed by global digital interactions.


Download data is not yet available.


Abbas, T. (2003). The impact of religio-cultural norms and values on the education of young South Asian women. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 24(4), 411-428.

ACARA. (2022). Australian Curriculum: Science F-10 Version 9, About the learning area. Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority.

Al-Khatib, T. (2023). Netiquette rules in online learning through the lens of digital citizenship scale in the post-Corona era. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, 21(2), 181-201.

Alakurt, T., & YilmazI, B. (2021). Teachers’ views on the use of mobile phones in schools. Journal of Computer and Education Research, 9(18), 575-597. DOI: 10.18009/jcer.901358

Altamimi, T. M. (2023). Digital citizenship in the University of Hail, University of Newcastle, Australia. Retrieved from

Atkins, T., & Nelson, G. (2001). Plagiarism and the internet: Turning the tables. English Journal, 90(4), 101-104.

Bannink, R., Broeren, S., VanDeLooij-Jansen, P. M., DeWarat, F. G., & Raaf, H. (2014). Cyber and traditional bullying victimization as a risk factor for mental health problems and suicidal ideation in adolescents. PLoS One, 9(4), 1–8.

Bauer, T. N., Bodner, T., Erdogan, B., Truxillo, D. M., & Tucker, J. S. (2007). Newcomer adjustment during organizational socialization: A meta-analytic review of antecedents, outcomes, and methods. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(3), 707-721.

Boston, K. (2001, August 21). A character building assignment for the nation. The Sydney Morning Herald, 12.

Boudreau, M.-C., Loch, K. D., Robey, D., & Straud, D. (1998). Going global: Using information technology to advance the competitiveness of the virtual transnational organization. Academy of Management Perspectives, 12(4), 120-128.

Bracey, G. W. (2001). Question authority. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(3), 191-192.

Buchholz, B. A., DeHart, J., & Moorman, G. (2020). Digital citizenship during a global pandemic: Moving beyond digital literacy. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 64(1), 11-17.

Cadwalladr, C., & Graham-Harrison, E. (2018, March 18). Revealed: 50 million Facebook peofiles harvested for Cambridge Analytica in major data breach. The Guardian. Retrieved from

Canales, S. B. (2023). Former Qantas CEO Alan Joyce avoids Senate inquiry after push to extend probe knocked back. Retrieved from

Caplan, S. (2019). Intersection of cultural and religious beliefs about mental health: Latinos in the faith-based setting. Hispanic Health Care International, 17(1), 4-10.

Cavalier, R. M., & Winder, R. B. (1988). The values we teach. New South Wales Department of Education.

Choi, E., & Park, N. (2021). Can online education programs solve the cyberbullying problem? Educating South Korean elementary students in the COVID-19 era. Sustainability, 13(20), 11211, DOI: 10.3390/su132011211.

Cline, E. (2011). Ready player one. Random House.

Cogan, N. H. (2015). The complete Bill of Rights: The drafts, debates, sources, and origins. Oxford University Press.

D’Onfro, J. (2018, July 18). Google’s $5 billion fine: What you need to know. CNBC. Retrieved from

Dawud, S. A. (2008). Kitab Al-Sunnah (Vol. 1). book 42, Hadith 87.

Dewi, R. K., Wardani, S., Wijayati, N., & Sumarni, W. (2019). Demand of ICT-based Chemistry learning media in the disruptive era. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 8(2), 265-270.

Dorasamy, M., Kaliannan, M., Jambulingam, M., Ramadhan, I., & Sivaji, A. (2021). Parents’ awareness on online predators: Cyber grooming deterrence. The Qualitative Report, 26(11), 3683-3723.

Dulah, N. M. J. A. (2023). English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Source-Based Writing in Indonesian Universities: Investigating Teaching and Learning Practices, Perceptions, Strategies, and Challenges, University of Newcastle, Australia. Retrieved from

Eaton, S. E. (2023, 04 March 2023). Artificial intelligence and academic integrity, post-plagiarism. University World News. Retrieved from

Engelhardt, H. T., & Rasmussen, L. M. (Eds.). (2002). Bioethics and moral content: National traditions of health care morality. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Fox, C. (2019). Google hit with £44m GDPR fine over ads. BBC. Retrieved from

Frieiro Padin, P., González Rodríguez, R., Verde Diego, M. D. C., & Vázquez Pérez, R. (2021). Social media and eating disorder psychopathology: A systematic review. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 15(3). DOI: 10.5817/CP2021-3-6

Gazi, Z.A. (2016). Internalization of digital citizenship for the future of all levels of education. Education & Science, 41(186). DOI: 10.15390/EB.2016.4533

Griffiths, J. (2021). The great firewall of China: How to build and control an alternative version of the internet. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Hammerstein, S., König, C., Dreisörner, T., & Frey, A. (2021). Effects of COVID-19-related school closures on student achievement-a systematic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Hivon, J., & Titah, R. (2017). Conceptualizing citizen participation in open data use at the city level. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 11(1), 99-118.

Holmes, C. (2023). Royal Commission into the Robodebt scheme: Report. Retrieved from

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture and organizations. International Studies of Management & Organization, 10(4), 15-41.

Hofstede, G. (1991). Empirical models of cultural differences. In N. Bleichrodt & P. J. D. Drenth (Eds.) ,Contemporary issues in cross-cultural psychology (pp. 4–20). Swets & Zeitlinger.

Hofstede, G., & Usunier, J.-C. (2003). Hofstede’s dimensions of culture and their influence on international business negotiations. International business negotiation, 60(3), 137-153.

Hotten, R. (2015). Volkswagen: The scandal explained. BBC. Retrieved from

Hughes, T. (1870). Tom Brown’s school days. Harper & Brothers.

ISTE. (2017). ISTE Standards for education: A guide for teachers and other professionals (First Edition). International Society for Technology in Education.

Jadambaa, A., Thomas, H. J., Scott, J. G., Graves, N., Brain, D., & Pacella, R. (2019). Prevalence of traditional bullying and cyberbullying among children and adolescents in Australia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 53(9), 878-888.

John, A., Glendenning, A. C., Marchant, A., Montgomery, P., Stewart, A., Wood, S., Llyod, K., & Hawton, K. (2018). Self-harm, suicidal behaviours and cyberbullying in children and young people: A systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 20(4). DOI: 10.2196/jmir.9044

Khaerudin (2022). Makassar youth use of English in and outside of the school, University of Newcastle, Australia. Retrieved from

Khalil, S. (2021, February 25). Facebook and Google news law passed in Australia. BBC. Retrieved from

Kim, M., & Choi, D. (2018). Development of Youth Digital Citizenship scale and implication for educational setting. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 21(1), 155-171.

Kovac, J. (1996). Scientific ethics in chemical education. Journal of Chemical Education, 73(10), 296-305.

Kruskal, J. B., Young, F. W., & Seery, J. B. (1973). How to use KYST, a very flexible program to do multidimensional scaling and unfolding. Bell Laboratories.

Kwan, I., Dickson, K., Richardson, M., MacDowall, Burchett, H., Satnsfield, C., & Bruntop, G. (2020). Cyberbullying and children and young people’s mental health: A systematic map of systematic reviews. Cyberbullying, Behaviour and Social Networking, 23(2), 72–822. 10.1089/cyber.2019.0370

Ladwig, J. & Gore, J. (2003). Quality Teaching in New South Wales Public Schools: Discussion paper. New South Wales: Department of Education and Training Professional Support and Curriculum Directorate

Langat, D. K. (2015). Effects of Hofstede’s dimensions of culture on consumer purchase decisions among the Kipsigis community: A case of Bomet County. Kenya Egerton University.

Lee, J. K. (2024). Values and science in contemporary education: The study and impact of student orientation. University of Newcastle, Australia

Levy, N., Cortesi, S., Gasser, U., Crowley, E., Beaton, M., Casey, J., & Nolan, C. (2012). Bullying in a networked era: A literature review. Massachusetts: Harvard University .Retrieved from

Lindeman, M., & Verkasalo, M. (2005). Measuring values with the Short Schwartz’s Value Survey. Journal of Personality Assessment, 85(2), 170-178. DOI: 10.1207/s15327752jpa8502_09

Lorenzo-Dus, N. (2022). Digital grooming: Discourses of manipulation and cyber-crime. Oxford University Press.

Maulida, S. Z., Xavier, M., & Elliot, M. (2023). The essence of Pancasila as the foundation and ideology of the state: The values of Pancasila. International Journal of Educational Narratives, 1(2), 95-102.

MCEETYA. (2005). National framework for values education in Australian schools. Department of Education, Science and Training.

Minns, C. (2023, April 3). NSW Government begins mobile phone ban in public high schools. Retrieved from,students’%20learning%20and%20social%20development .

Moghadam, V. M., & Elveren, D. (2008). The making of an international Convention: culture and free trade in a global era. Review of International Studies, 34(4), 735-753.

Mumford, M. D., Helton, W. B., Decker, B. P., Connelly, M. S., & Doorn, J. R. V. (2003). Values and beliefs related to ethical decisions. Teaching Business Ethics, 7(2), 139-170.

Natalia, V. E. D., Pratama, A. O., & Astuti, M. D. (2021). Implementation of Pancasila values in character education: A literature review. International Journal Pedagogy of Social Studies, 6(1), 35-42.

NESA. (2019). NSW syllabus for the Australian curriculum: Science years 7-10 syllabus. NSW Education Standards Authority.

Nunez, M. (2019). FTC slaps Facebook with $5 billion fine, forces new privacy controls. Retrieved from

Nurunnabi, M. (2017). Transformation from an oil-based economy to a knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia: The direction of Saudi Vision 2030. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 8(1), 536-564.

O’Toole, G. (2020). Communication: Core interpersonal skills for health professionals (4 ed.). Elsevier Australia.

O’Toole, J. M., McKoy, K., Freestone, M., & Osborn, J.-A. (2020). ‘Scientific Literacy’: An exercise in model building. Education Sciences, 10.

Park, C. (2003). In other (people’s) words: Plagiarism by university students: Literature and lessons. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 28(5), 471-488.

Peddiwell, J. A. (1939). The sabre-tooth curriculum. McGraw-Hill.

Peña-García, N., Gil-Saura, I., Rodríguez-Orejuela, A., & Siqueira-Junior, J. R. (2020). Purchase intention and purchase behavior online: A cross-cultural approach. Heliyon, 6(6), 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04284.

Pokhrel, S., & Chhetri, R. (2021). A literature review on impact of COVID-19 pandemic on teaching and learning. Higher Education for the Future, 8(1), 133-141.

Poudevigne, M., Armstrong, E. S., Mickey, M., Nelson, M. A., Obi, C. N., Scott, A., Thomas, N., & Thompson, T. N. (2022). What’s in your culture? Embracing stability and the new digital age in moving colleges of health professions virtually during the COVID-19 pandemic: an experiential narrative review. Education Sciences, 12(2), 137.

Refshauge, A. (2004). Values in NSW public schools. New South Wales Department of Education and Training.

Ribble. (2015). Digital citizenship in schools: Nine elements all students should know. Virginia: International Society for Technology in Education.

Richardson, J., & Milovidov, E. (2019). Digital citizenship education handbook: Being online, well-being online, and rights online. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.

Saleem, T. A. (2018). Digital citizenship and its activation means in educational institutions. International Forum of Teaching and Studies, 14(2), 39-53.

Schwartz, S. H. (2005). Basic human values: An overview - basic human values: theory, methods, and applications. Revue Française de Sociologie, 47(4).

Schwartz, S. H. (2012). An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1).

Scott, J. (2003). Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and quality teaching. Curriculum Support for teaching in Science, 8(3), 11-12.

Selwyn, N., & Aagaard, J. (2021). Banning mobile phones from classrooms: An opportunity to advance understandings of technology addiction, distraction and cyberbullying. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(1), 8-19.

Stephenson, N. (1992). Snow crash. Bantam Books.

Suson, R. L. (2019). Appropriating digital citizenship in the context of basic education. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, 7(4), 44-66.

Vidi-Paramestri, N., & Rumambo-Pandin, M. G. (2021). Lack of implementation of Pancasila values in the era of globalization. Preprints.

Vincent, P. (2000). Values added. The Sydney Morning Herald, 5.

Warren, T. (2018, July 18). Google fined a record $5 billion by the EU for Android antitrust violations. Theverge. Retrieved from

Wassermann, S. (2001). Curriculum enrichment with computer software. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(9), 593-597.




How to Cite

O’Toole, J. M., Lee, J. K., & Altamimi, T. (2024). Digital Citizenship, Values and Cultural Dynamism. International Journal of Research in STEM Education, 6(1), 59–75.



Research Articles