Probing Experiential Learning Approach Effect on Critical Thinking Ability of Secondary School Students' in Biology


  • Izunna Nwuba Department of Science Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
  • Abigail Mgboyibo OSUAFOR Department of Science Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
  • Sussan Onyebuchi EGWU Department of Science Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
  • Maxwell Chukwunazo OBIKEZIE Department of Science Education, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria


Experiential Learning Approach, Critical Thinking Ability, Biology, Gender


  1. The study explored effect of Experiential Learning Approach (ELA) on secondary school students’ CTA in biology. The study is quasi-experimental, adopting the non-randomized control group design. 4755 senior secondary year 2 (SS2) students constituted the population. Multi-stage sampling procedure was employed to compose the sample size of 53 SS2 students. The sampled students who were in two intact classes were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Adapted Watson-Glaser Critical thinking appraisal (WGCTA) validated by experts with a reliability coefficient of 0.71 was used for data collection. Mean and SD were used in answering the research questions and ANCOVA to test the null hypotheses. Findings revealed that ELA enhanced students’ CTA in biology, irrespective of gender, more than CLM. As a result, the study concluded that ELA is a gender-inclusive strategy that improves students' CTA and then recommended that biology teachers should adopt ELA in classrooms to improve students’ CTA.


Download data is not yet available.


Andresen, L., Boud, D., & Cohen, R. (2020). Experience-based Learning. In Understanding Adult Education and Training, (225- 239).

Asuai, N. C. (2013). Impact of critical thinking on performance in mathematics among senior secondary school students in Lagos state. Journal of Research & Method in Education, 3(5), 18-25.

Beard, C., & Wilson, J. (2018). Experiential Learning: A Practical Guide for Training, Coaching and Education. Kogan Page Publishers.

Bustami, Y., Syafruddin, D., & Afriani, R. (2018). The implementation of contextual learning to enhance biology students’ critical thinking skills in Sintang, Indonesia. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(4), 451-457.

Chiketa, E. C., & Okigbo, E.C. (2021). Relationship between critical thinking ability and mathematics achievement of secondary school students in Anambra State. Southeastern Journal of Research and Sustainable development, 4(2), 129-139

Dianita, B. (2023). Problem based learning model with experiential learning to increase creative thinking and critical thinking ability. Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pendidikan, 7(2), 328-335. E-ISSN: 2615-4498.

Duran, N. (2016). The effects of inquiry-based approach on students’ critical thinking skills in chemistry. Eurasia journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 12(12), 2887-2908.

Fajrianthy, H.W., & Septarini, B.G. (2016). Developing critical thinking test utilizing item response theory. Jurnal Penelitian dan Evaluasi Pendidikan, 20 (1), 45-55.

Gisoi, J.M., Njagi, M. W., & Mungiria, J. N. (2023). Effectiveness of experiential learning approach on students’ academic achievement in biology in secondary schools in Maara Subcounty, Kenya. International Journal of Novel Research and Development, 8(9), 324-331.

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience as a Source of Learning and Development. Eaglewood and Cliffs N. J USA: Prentice Hall

Kolb, A., & Kolb, D. (2017). Experiential Learning Theory as a Guide for Experiential Educators in Higher Education. Experiential Learning & Teaching in Higher Education, 1(1), 7-44.

Kurniahtunnisa, Anggraito, Y.U., Ridlo, S., & Harahap, F. (2023). STEM-PjBL learning: the impacts on students’ critical thinking, creative thinking, communication, and collaboration skills. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan IPA, 1(1), 1-4.

Lee, J. (2015). ’Oh, I just had it in my head’: Promoting mathematical communications in early childhood”. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 16(3), 284-287.

Mahanal. S., Tendrita, M., Ramadhan, F., Ismirawati, N., & Zubaidah, S. (2017). The analysis of students’ critical thinking skills on biology subject. Anatolian Journal of Instruction, 2 (2), 21-39.

Moafian, F., & Ganizadeh, A. (2011). A correlational analysis of ELF university students’ critical thinking and self-efficacy. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 3(1), 120-149.

Morris, T. (2020). Experiential Learning–a Systematic Review and Revision of Kolb’s Model. Interactive Learning Environments, 28(8), 1064-1077.

Nwoye, A.N., Okeke, S.O.C., & Nwosu, F.C. (2020). Gender and academic retention of secondary school students’ taught electrostatics with computer animated instructional package in Awka education Zone. UNIZIK Journal of STM Education, 3(2), 41-50.

Nwuba, I. S., & Osuafor, A. M. (2021). Effect of experiential learning approach on secondary school students’ academic achievement in biology in Awka Education Zone. South Eastern Journal of Research and Sustainable Development, 4(2), 1–15.

Nwuba, I. S., Egwu, S. O., Awosika, F. O., & Osuafor, A. M. (2022a). Secondary school students’ critical thinking ability as correlate of their academic achievement in biology in Awka Education Zone, Nigeria. Human Nature Journal of Social Sciences, 3(4), 201– 210.

Nwuba, I.S., Osuafor, A.M., Egwu, O.S., & Awosika, O.F. (2022b). Promoting Senior High School Students’ Acquisition of Science Process Skills in Biology Using Experiential Learning Approach in Anambra State, Nigeria. Asian J. Interdicip. Res, 5(4), 24-33.

Nwuba, I. S., Egwu, O. S., Awosika, O. F., & Osuafor, A. M. (2023). Examining of crossover instructional strategy toward biology students’ academic performance in secondary schools. Inornatus: Biology Education Journal, 3 (2), 50-59. DOI: 10.30862/inornatus.v3i2.420

Obikezie, M. C., Nwuba, I. S., & Ibe, F. N. (2023). Influence of school location and gender on generative learning model on secondary school students' academic achievement in chemistry. Eureka: Journal of Educational Research, 2(1), 51-59.

Okuakaji, M., & Sukolatambaya, (2020) Effect of experiential learning strategy on biology students’ academic achievement in Dutsin-MA Local Government Area of Katsina State in Nigeria. AL-hikmah Journal of Education, 7(10) 20-25.

Owolabi, O., Babatunde, A. E., & Gambari, A. I. (2019). Effects of computer animation instructional package on secondary school students’ achievement in biology in Niger State, Nigeria. Journal of Science, Technology, Mathematics and Education, 15(1), 240–246.

Samuel, N. N. C. (2017). Effect of computer animation and activity-based inquiry learning strategy on chemistry students’ critical thinking and achievement in Otuocha Education Zone. Unizik Journal of STM Education, 2(1), 51-65.

Scogin, S. C., Kruger, C. J., Jekkals, R. E., & Steinfeldt, C. (2017). Learning by experience in a standardized testing culture: investigation of a middle school experiential learning program. Journal of Experiential Education, 40(1), 39–57.

Slameto, (2014). Developing critical thinking skills through school teacher training “training and development personnel” model and their determinants of success. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 4(2), 161-166.

Watson, G. and Glasser, E.M. (1980). Manual: The Watson Glasser critical thinking appraisal. New York: Harcourt Brace




How to Cite

Nwuba, I., OSUAFOR, A. M. ., EGWU, S. O. ., & OBIKEZIE, M. . C. . (2024). Probing Experiential Learning Approach Effect on Critical Thinking Ability of Secondary School Students’ in Biology . International Journal of Research in STEM Education, 6(1), 36–45. Retrieved from



Research Articles